Science and Culture of the United States

The most famous national scientific organization is the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (founded in 1780), whose members are St. 3 thousand American scientists and St. 550 foreign honorary members. Among the members of the academy ca. 180 Nobel Prize winners and St. 60 Pulitzer Prize winners. Since the establishment of the Nobel Prize (1901), approx. 280 American scientists, political and public figures. The elite association of scientists is the American Philosophical Society (founded in 1743).

According to andyeducation, the education system in the United States consists of several links, including secondary and higher schools (public and private), federal and private vocational schools, as well as professional courses in the civilian sectors of the economy and the Armed Forces. In the country of St. 2.3 thousand universities and colleges of the highest level (4-year term of study) and St. 1.7 thousand junior colleges (2-year term of study) with 15 million students. 78% of students study in public universities, and 22% in private ones. 53.2 million (88%) study in public schools in the country, approx. 6 million (12%) schoolchildren. Public and private spending on higher and secondary education (excluding vocational training, adult education, retraining, etc.) is approx. $700 billion (6.5% of GDP), of which $277 billion for higher education and 423 billion for primary and secondary education (2000). Sources of appropriations are both the US federal budget and the budgets of states and local governments. OK. An additional $150 billion is allocated for “adult education.”

The largest and most prestigious universities in the country are the so-called private universities. Ivy League – Harvard, Princeton, Columbia, Pennsylvania, Yale, Cornell, as well as Stanford, Georgetown Universities, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, etc.

The Nobel Prize was awarded to 8 American writers, playwrights and poets – Sinclair Lewis (1930), Eugene O’Neill (1936), Pearl Buck (1938), William Faulkner (1949), Ernest Hemingway (1954), John Steinbeck (1962), Saul Bellow (1976), Toni Morrison (1993).

The largest museum complex in the country is the semi-state Smithsonian Institution (founded in 1846), which consists of 14 museums. Among the 100 most famous museums are the National Gallery of Art (Washington), the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York), the Museum of Modern Art (New York), the Frick Museum (New York), the Guggenheim Museum (New York), Philadelphia Museum of Art.

There are no repertory drama theaters in the country; commercial theater is popular with predominantly musical performances (musicals), for which the theaters of New York Broadway and nearby streets (off-Broadway) are especially famous. For many years, the New York Metropolitan Opera was considered the leading musical and theatrical venue in the country; since 1966 – the New York Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts. New York’s Carnegie Hall (opened in 1891) is considered the most famous concert hall in the United States, but there are excellent concert halls in all major cities of the country. The leading symphony orchestras are the National, Philadelphia, New York, Boston, San Francisco, Cleveland, headed by world-famous conductors.

The highest national award in the field of theatrical art is the Tony Award (named after Antoinette Perry, since 1948), awarded in 24 categories.

The National Film Production Center is Hollywood. Approx. 500 feature films. In the field of cinematography, the country’s most prestigious awards are the Golden Globe and the Oscar. Since 1927, the annual Oscar award of the American Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences has been awarded to 6 Soviet and Russian films: the documentary The Defeat of the Nazi Troops near Moscow (1943); feature films “War and Peace” (1968), “Dersu Uzala” (1976), “Moscow Does Not Believe in Tears” (1981), “Burnt by the Sun” (1996) and the short animated film “The Old Man and the Sea” (2000). In 1991, the Oscar was awarded to a group of Moscow scientists for technical achievements in the field of cinema (the award was shared with 11 other winners).

Annual sale of musical recordings of all kinds – St. 1 billion copies for the amount of St. $14 billion. In the field of musical recordings, the highest national award is the Grammy (since 1958).

Education of United States