Science and Culture of Iran
According to educationvv, compulsory primary and secondary education introduced. In connection with the proclamation of the “Islamic Cultural Revolution” in 1980, universities were closed, after 1983 they began to function again, the total number of higher educational institutions reached 150, including pedagogical and technical institutes. There are 38 universities, 15 of them are in Tehran. The largest is the University of Tehran, universities operate in almost all capital cities. The number of university students in 2002 was 1.5 million people. The share of spending on education is 4% of GDP.
Research work is concentrated in universities, research centers of large companies (INNK, Organization of Atomic Energy). Applied research dominates in the R&D structure, most of them are related to defense purposes, the development of Western technologies. R&D spending does not exceed 0.5% of GDP.
The official canons of Islamic ideology led to a sharp narrowing of the cultural field; in 1979, not only classical music, theater, ballet, many films, but even Firdowsi’s Shah-nameh were banned. Since the 1990s began a gradual weakening of Islamic prohibitions both on the subject and on the direction of art. In painting, music, the use of modern world schools is noticeable. Rock bands performed before the presidential elections, European influence in painting is noticeable. Iranian cinema has reached the world level. The most famous masters of Iranian cinema are Abbas Kiyarostami (Palme d’Or in Cannes for Taste of Cherry, Bronze Leopard in Locarno for the film Where is the Home of a Friend?), prizes at international film festivals in Berlin, Bergamo, Rome, Chicago for the film “Under the Olives”), Majid Majidi (“The Color of God”), Mohsen Makhmalbaf, screenwriter and director of the films “Hawker” (1987), “Cyclist” (1989, the main award in Rimini), “Salam, Cinema” (1996, Munich), “Bread and Vase” (1996). In 2000, Samira Makhmalbaf’s The School Board won the Grand Prize at the Cannes Film Festival. Iranian cinema, considered elite by critics, is distinguished by high professionalism and a special philosophical approach to the national character of the Iranians, their culture, mentality and its historical roots.
General information about Iran
The official name is the Islamic Republic of Iran (Jomhuriyeh Eslamyye Iran) (until 1935 Persia). Located in Southwest Asia. The area is 1648 thousand km2, the population is 66.6 million people. (2002). The official language is Farsi (Persian). The capital is Tehran (8 million people, 2000). National holiday – Republic Day April 1 (since 1979). The monetary unit is the rial.
Possessions: since 1971 joint with the UAE (since the 1990s sole) management of the islands in the Persian Gulf: Abu Musa, Big Tomb and Little Tomb.
Member of the UN (since 1945) and its organizations (UNESCO, ILO, FAO), IMF (since 1944), OIC (since 1969), OPEC (since 1960), etc.
The average annual population growth rate was 3.9% in 1976–86, 2.5% in 1986–91, and 1.5% in 1991–96 (the year of the last census). In 1996, more than 1 million migrants lived in India, mostly from Afghanistan (804,000) and Iraq (179,000).
Birth rate 17.54‰, mortality 5.39‰, infant mortality 28.07 people. per 1000 newborns (2002). Average life expectancy is 70.25 years, incl. men 68.87, women 71.69.
Age structure of the population: 0-14 years old – 31.6%, 15-64 years old – 63.7%, incl. 15-24 years old – 20.5%, 65 years and older – 4.7%. 50.7% men, 49.3% women. Urban population 63.2%, rural 36.8%.
Average retirement age: 47 years for women, 60 years for men (social and labor pensions are adjusted).
Among the population older than 6 years, 85.1% are literate, in the group of people 6-29 years old 93% (2002).
Ethnic composition: Persians – 51%, Azerbaijani Turks – 24%, Kurds – 7%, Arabs – 3%, Lurs – 2%, Balochs – 2%, Turkmens – 2%, etc. There is no official statistics on the ethnic composition, only confessional statistics are taken into account belonging. Languages: Persian – 58%, Turkic – 26%, Kurdish – 9%.
The official religion of the country is Jafari Shiism, although ca. 10% of Iranian Muslims are Sunnis. Islam is practiced by 99.6% of the population, in addition, approx. 80 thousand – Christians, approx. 30 thousand – Zoroastrians, the Jewish community after the Islamic revolution was reduced to 13-15 thousand.