The Mexican population is more than 128 million inhabitants, which places the country among the most populous on the planet, however, until the beginning of the 19th century, it did not reach 15 million.
The country had a dizzying demographic growth throughout the twentieth century and almost exclusively occurred through vegetative growth. Until 1940, the country had a growth of approximately 1.5% per year, but the mortality rates were quite high due to the conflicts of the Mexican Revolution (1910) and the poor living conditions.
Since the 1940s, growth has increased significantly, mainly due to the fall in mortality. The improvement of medical and sanitary conditions and the development of new drugs and preventive medicine were the main factors responsible for the reduction. From 1940 to 1980, the country is experiencing a period of demographic explosion ( baby boom ).
Industrial development in the country caused a strong migratory movement to cities, providing a disorderly growth, but limited to some cities, such as Mexico City, Guadalajara and Monterrey. As a large part of these cities did not have the necessary infrastructure to serve the majority of the population, the formation of slums, tenements and very poor peripheral neighborhoods was inevitable in their surroundings.
From 1980 onwards, the country is going through a period of demographic transition , in which mortality rates stabilize and birth rates begin to fall at a faster pace, mainly because the country begins to modernize and urbanize rapidly.
Another factor that draws attention in relation to the Mexican population is its ethnic structure, formed by whites of European origin (10%), mestizos (60%) and populations of indigenous origin (30%).
Historically, the white minority has always determined dominance over mestizo and indigenous groups, which has led to uprisings such as that of Chiapas , in the southern part of the territory, bordering Guatemala, giving rise to guerrilla movements such as the EZLN (Zapatista National Liberation Army) .
According to THEMOTORCYCLERS, the Mexican economy is emerging as one of the most important in the world. The country was one of those that adopted in the 1930s and 1940s the industrialization process known as Import Substitution when there was a shortage of products imported from the USA and Europe because of the Second World War.
The country’s policy helped its economic growth. The most striking periods were during the government of Lázaro Cárdenas , from 1934 to 1940, when actions were taken that stimulated the economy, such as the creation of a state company responsible for oil extraction in 1938, PEMEX, in addition to making decisions that favored workers, such as agrarian reform and the strengthening of unions,
Mexico has an agricultural diversity that is directly associated with climatic types, so in areas where the temperature and humidity are higher, the cultivation of sugar cane and coffee predominates; in the temperate areas of the central plateau, the large-scale production of corn, which is the staple food of the population and wheat, stands out.
Cattle farming (cattle and sheep) occupies extensive areas of Mexican territory. The country supplies beef to the United States.
As for the Mexican urban-industrial development, it was based on policies of state investment and protection of the internal market, fruit of the rise of the PRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party) to power in the beginning of the 20th century.
The low cost of labor, the abundance of mineral resources and the infrastructure created by the State attracted many foreign investments, mainly from the USA, leading the country to industrialize.
Its industrial regions are located around Mexico City and Puebla, although the Guadalajara, Monterrey, Tampico and Vera Cruz centers are also noteworthy. Among the main industrial activities are those of the automobile, food and petrochemical industries.
Mexico receives large foreign investments for the implantation of “maquiladoras”.
The issue of drug trafficking and control of the territory
Mexico is experiencing a real civil war due to territorial disputes over drug trafficking. Conflicts are stronger the closer you get to the border with the United States, the main destination for smuggled drugs.
Because profits are so high, several armed groups and gangs struggle to control access to the areas where drugs reach the United States.
There are several cartels active in Mexican territory, such as the Knights Templar, Sinaloa, Juarez, Beltran, Los Zetas, Arellano Felix (Tijuana). These groups live in constant conflict, which has already led to many deaths, kidnappings and political corruption.
To give you an idea, the crimes currently surpass those of Colombia in number of occurrences. In some regions, it is common to find decapitated bodies in the streets, dead people with signs of torture, corpses tied to walkways, among other scary methods.
Gangs extort money from traders and even the population. Another very common practice is to carry out kidnappings, both for obtaining ransom and for transporting drugs.