Brazil Anthropology Part 2
We add some metric data of the ethnic group that presents the characters of the type in the purest state: 4 Yamamadi gave a horizontal index. average of 81.8, an average stature of 159.8, a ratio of the lower limb to the stature of 50.2, ie of almost brachischelia (ie of short-legged proportions). The number of individuals, however, is too small.
The Yamamadi type often presents itself with a low aspect, but certainly it can present itself with an aging aspect; it is probable that a form of refinement of this type is for example the Carajá dell’Araguaya. The Bororó type is one of the most interesting, if not the most interesting in America (fig. 3). It is among the most Mongolian on this continent. The singularity of its appearance, however, is increased by the custom of the epilation. The root of the nose is moderately salient, the back not very prominent, straight and broad. The nostrils turned towards the front. The tip of the nose is at the opposite extreme of the previous type, that is, it can be said to be almost absent. The nasal septum often has the singularity of not reaching the level of the wings. The upper eyelid crease sometimes extends inwards with a true Mongolian crease. The facial width is strong, but the height is also strong, so a large face. The skull is high, the frontal convexity regularly salient. The hair has the lowest frequency of wavy, among all the series studied. The skin is quite dark.
20 male Bororos have an average horizontal index of 81.2, a stature of 173.7, a ratio of the lower limb to the stature of 50.9, ie mesathyskelia.
Recently, Baptista and Roquette-Pinto dissected an Indiana Ipurina, which, perhaps, belongs anthropologically to this type or in which, at least, the predominance of characters of this type is recognizable. The aforementioned authors found very special anatomical features. For this subject and for others we hope that the researches will multiply, given their great importance.
The Bororó type certainly owes his individualization to the isolation in which he remained in the heart of Brazil in the Altipiano del Matto Grosso, the region least open to ethnic movements. It is a type of very great importance for general questions relating to the population of America and the antiquity of man on this continent. But there cannot be a word here. Instead, it is necessary to note how the Bororó type proves to be the same type that is found in the sambaquis (Evening), shell deposits on the seashore, which some believe to be remnants of meals, others natural beach formations, at least in some cases. The opinion is widespread that the human craniense type found in the said sambaquis belongs to the Tupi type, but as we have seen, in reality the people of this name are characterized by mesocephalic skull at most and above all low, while the cranî of the sambaquis they are declared brachycephalic, and tall. The facial characters are absolutely different, since a strong degree of facial flattening is clearly evident in the skulls of the sambaquis, although not such as is found in the Mongolian type proper, but as in that human type that Sera called the first or Polynesian.. It is very important to note that this type, very probably, occurs in a single example in the skulls of the subfossil race of Lagoa Santa (see paleoanthropology), a skull that has often been neglected by those who have considered the Lagoa Santa series and that instead it demonstrates the presence of already quite ancient series mixes.
The presence of this Bororó type, with evolved characters, tall stature and strong cranial capacity, is one of the strongest arguments, to believe that the American man is produced by mixtures of several elements independent of each other: not only, but the finding of this type sporadic and almost obliterated by other types over an enormous expanse of space suggests that it once dominated much of the American continent. It shows close affinity with the Patagonian type.
In the east of Brazil, we then have other peoples who, anthropologically, form a unity around the ethnic group that is called the Botocudo who are perhaps the most primitive of these peoples; most probably all Gés-speaking ethnic groups, at least, belong to this type, which however is probably also proper or predominant in Tupized or Guaranized ethnic groups, due to language and ergology. We have given the characters of this type to the special item and it is useless to repeat them. Most likely this type had a very large extension towards the southern areas of the continent in prehistoric periods. A very important question relating to him is that of his relationship with the Jamamadi type. Under the anthropogeographical respect the relationships are not direct, being interposed between the one and the another the Bororó type, at least in the west-east direction. But in what morphological relationships are the one and the other? They are certainly similar, but perhaps not closely related. This is one of the biggest questions that the anthropology of South America presents to us, since some notes of the Botocudo type make us think of Negroid affinities, and therefore towards the other side of the Atlantic (Sera). In any case, Ehrenreich insists a lot on the differences between the general shape, the overall appearance of the Botocudo type skull (speaking of his Cayapó skulls) and the Carajá type of skull, which appear to him as two very distinct shapes. And it is precisely many of the descriptive characters taken into consideration by Ehrenreich (pp. 160-161) that come into play to determine the physiognomic differences of the living. Even Ehrenreich, noting the strong similarities for the facial skull between Cayapó (brachycephalic) and Botocudo (dolichocephalic), does not hesitate to approach them closely, affirming the very little value that must be attributed to the differences in the horizontal cephalic index. This is an observation that makes us consider that very probably ethnic groups assigned to an anthropological type Tupi or Guarani are not such, but to be traced back to the Botocudo-Cayapó type. The prehistoric skulls of Lagoa Santa, which will be discussed elsewhere, certainly have to be attributed to this. This is an observation that makes us consider that very probably ethnic groups assigned to an anthropological type Tupi or Guarani are not such, but to be traced back to the Botocudo-Cayapó type. The prehistoric skulls of Lagoa Santa, which will be discussed elsewhere, certainly have to be attributed to this. This is an observation that makes us consider that very probably ethnic groups assigned to an anthropological type Tupi or Guarani are not such, but to be traced back to the Botocudo-Cayapó type. The prehistoric skulls of Lagoa Santa, which will be discussed elsewhere, certainly have to be attributed to this.